1.1.   Professors against Science

1.2.   Superior and Inferior Races?

1.3.   The First Human?

1.4.   Prehistoric World War:  The Skull, Nazis and Professors in Petralona Cave



In 2004 Professor Reiner Protsch von Zieten (b. 1939), was caught trying to sell his University’s collection of chimpanzee skulls on the black market. This scandal triggered a number of further investigations which brought to light that Protsch had not only stolen great quantities of anthropological material, but had also flooded the most reputable international journals with fraudulent science and fake datings. As a result, in 2005 the Frankfurt University closed the entire Institute of Anthropology and Human Genetics. Notwithstanding the immense severity of the scandal, little became known to the media because a planned press conference was cancelled by the German authorities. The entire case was closed. Neither the academic world nor the media would discover that the Institute systematically produced fake science to support German racial superiority theories.

The same Institute had systematically suppressed highly important discoveries made by other scientists who worked from the 1960s to the 1990s in the gigantic Petralona cave complex. For hundreds of thousands of years the entrance of that cave was sealed by natural means, and as a result it remained inaccessible. For this reason, the Petralona cave complex is a unique time capsule which has preserved information coming from the very distant past. It is hard to find another cave in the world that has attracted so much interest amongst the scientific community. There are powerful indications it contains, among other finds, the world’s earliest man-made masonry structures and the earliest use of fire. The leading scientist of the Petralona cave, Dr Aris Poulianos, has been sidelined and defamed by the academics who supported Protsch for many years. After over 100 legal cases and some assassination attempts on his life, Poulianos who is now 95 is still waiting for the international academic community to deal with the fraudsters.


Excerpts from 1.1: Professors against Science

It is not widely known that Protsch, the son of a prominent Nazi politician(FN), received his academic post with the help of Professor Hans Fleischhacker(FN) (1912-1992), a former SS officer who experimented on Jewish women in Auschwitz. After his career in the concentration camps, Fleischhacker became a professor at Frankfurt University where he continued handling archives on gruesome experiments made by Nazi scientists, Josef Mengele included. Fleischhacker and Protsch are responsible for the disappearance of material coming from such archives,(FN) but no full investigation has been made on the relation between Protsch and a network of former SS scientists who were active up to the 1980s. However, it is now clear that Protsch wrote a PhD thesis based on a fake find he supposedly discovered in a cave in Switzerland, and was awarded his PhD from a department in the University of Vienna that was created and directed by another former SS scientist and Fleischhacker’s friend, Professor Emil Breitinger (1904-2004).(FN)


After 2001 a team of scientists went to Oxford laboratories to test some samples from anthropological finds that Protsch had dated in the past. The results proved that the datings provided by Protsch were fabricated and highly inaccurate. In response, Protsch destroyed other finds he had dated, out of fear that they might be tested again. This was not the first time scientists had warned that Protsch and his circle were publishing fraudulent research.(FN) From 1973 up to 2004, when he was caught selling the chimpanzee skulls, a number of warnings were ignored both by his superiors and by the international academic establishment. Only after an article was published against him by Der Spiegel in August 2004(FN) there was some action taken. It is also important to note that even after he was arrested in 2004 and fully exposed in 2005, the international academic associations which had promoted Protsch’s fraud for many years failed to publish retractions or apologies.

For three decades Protsch and his circle were free to flood the most reputable international journals and academic publications with fake science. Many of the academic establishment had accepted this excessive volume of fraud, and those who had exposed Protsch as a crook had been systematically marginalised. As a result, much of the history of human evolution presented in the most reputable anthropology journals and books published in the last few decades, contain fake science produced by Protsch and his associates.

From a first look at what Protsch had done, the British journalist David Adam concluded that Protsch was one of the most dangerous fraudsters in the history of science.(FN) The public, however, remains unaware of the extent into which Protsch and other professors like him have undermined mankind’s understanding of its own past.

1.4:  Prehistoric World War: The Skull, Nazis and Professors in Petralona Cave

The Japanese Professor Motoji Ikeya (d. 2006) studied some contents from the spectacular cave complex of Petralona, Greece,(FN) discovered by accident in 1959. It is a gigantic cave, with corridors longer than 2000 metres and its interior surface is larger than 10,000 square metres. For many thousands of years its entrance was sealed by natural means, and as a result the cave remained inaccessible. An international congress of scientists in Paris, 1976, concluded that nothing inside the cave could be younger than 350,000 years old, but research which followed indicates the cave could have been sealed half a million years ago or even earlier. In other words, the cave complex is a time capsule preserving information coming from the very distant past. It is hard to find another cave in the world that has attracted so much interest amongst the scientific community. So far, notwithstanding the long periods it has been locked by the authorities, about fifty specialists and their teams emanating from twelve countries have investigated its contents.(FN) 

After lengthy research during the 1970s and 1980s, Ikeya concluded that some ashes and a burned stalagmite proved that people used fire inside the Petralona cave circa one million years ago. According to Ikeya’s results, this is the earliest use of fire discovered anywhere in the world(FN) but the Greek Professor Nikolaos Xirotiris, personally trained and promoted by Protsch, claimed that some German scientists from the same Frankfurt Institute that Protsch was directing gained access to the same ashes examined by Ikeya and analysed them for themselves.(FN) The German scientists concluded that the ashes were not ashes at all but magnesium salts which looked like ashes. In this way the German associates of Xirotiris and Protsch indicated that Ikeya and his Japanese team either made tremendous mistakes or fabricated their research. Ikeya had died long before the Germans re-examined the ashes, so he was not able to respond. For those who are qualified, enough ashes remain in Petralona to be re-examined; but the cave and its research facilities are now locked by the authorities. No scientist is permitted to conduct any research there.

One of Ikeya’s supporters, Dr Aris Poulianos (b. 1924) is a main opponent of the Nordicist professors and not an ordinary scientist. During WWII he left a very comfortable life in the US to volunteer and risk his life on the front line against the Nazis. After the war he continued his biology and anthropology studies in the Soviet Union, where he was recognised as a leading anthropologist and was trusted with a high-profile research post. Poulianos still has the world record for examining the largest number of prehistoric human skulls, covering a vast geographical region from Spain to Japan.

In his doctoral thesis published in 1961, Poulianos provided strong scientific evidence that the Nordicist academic establishment were wrong. He had compared the morphology of ancient Greek and modern Greek skulls and proved that the ancient and modern Greek populations are closely related. Poulianos had also conducted the most extensive anthropological research over a wide region, which proved that the modern peoples of the Balkans and Asia Minor are mainly autochthonous and inter-related descendants of prehistoric people who lived in the same regions.(FN) Contrary to what many Nordicist professors were teaching at that time, Poulianos had made it clear to the scientific community that no ancient Greeks came from the Germanic north. However, from the first moment that he published results exposing the fallacy of the Nordicist academic establishment, they blacklisted him.

Some other professors were convinced that Poulianos was an important scientist, and as a result of their support he was personally invited by a Greek prime minister(FN) to research the Petralona cave complex. In 1965 he accepted the invitation, left his prestigious post in the Soviet Union and started research in Petralona; but within two years he was arrested and imprisoned by a far-right dictatorship that came into power all of a sudden, simply because he had a left-wing record. His pregnant wife was also brutalised by the fascist authorities and as a result she lost her child. Scientists from different countries protested against Poulianos’s arrest and he was released from prison within five months, but apart from a short break in 1968 he was forbidden to continue his research in Petralona.(FN) Unable to avoid systematic surveillance during the dictatorship, Poulianos sent his own young son Nikos, 13 years old at the time, together with a university student who later became a reputable professor,(FN) to continue research in Petralona in secrecy. Nikos later gained two PhDs and became a leading anthropologist in Greece.

Instead of Aris Poulianos and his team, the dictatorship permitted the former German SS officer and scientist, Professor Emil Breitinger we have seen earlier, to do what he wanted in the cave. This was Breitinger’s second period of work in Petralona. The first was before Poulianos arrived from Soviet Union. By 1974 the Greek dictatorship had eventually fallen and the prime minister who had invited Poulianos in the 1960s came back into power. Within two years Poulianos again had a new research post in Petralona, but this was not to last either.

Back in 1960 a skull(FN) of an early Homo was discovered inside the cave. Poulianos named this Homo Archanthropus europaeus petraloniensis. The skull is kept away from public view and has been damaged. Two Greek professors from the University of Thessalonica were the first scientists to handle the skull, and soon after they invited Breitinger and another German professor to examine it. It is important to note that a skeleton found next to the Archanthropus skull had disappeared before Poulianos arrived, but nobody appears to know who exactly took the skeletal remains and where are they.(FN)This is a detail which incriminates Breitinger in particular, because he always advocated that the skull was found without any skeletal remains next to it.(FN) The fact is that the remains were taken first to the University of Thessalonica, as officially testified by Christos Sarrigiannidis, the first person who discovered the skull and its skeleton next to it. Interestingly, no investigation has been ordered to find the skeletal remains despite their highly important scientific value.

On the basis of the Petralona skull’s similarities to other skulls discovered in other parts of the world, the first professors in the company of Breitinger concluded that the skull was about 50-70,000 thousand years old.(FN) This dating was provided solely by a visual examination, without any physical substance of the skull or of its location being scientifically analysed. For some time the skull was kept by German professors, but they later returned it to Greek professors in the University of Thessalonica. It is also important to note that all calcite fossilised attachments on the skull, which could have been analysed to define its date, were detached from it and are missing.(FN) Just like in the case of the skeletal remains, it is highly important to find the calcite attachments and date them, but the authorities are again prevented from conducting any investigation. Evidently, the disappearance of both the skeleton and the calcite attachments is not coincidental.

Poulianos had the chance to see the skull during an international conference. From his own visual examination he immediately realised that the skull was far older than the dating provided by the German professors and their Greek associates. He disagreed with them all, and called for more scientists to examine the skull and date it by using any available scientific methods. However, the circle of professors who had provided the first dating and retained the skull in their possession, had their own plans.

Breitinger the former SS officer, apart from having provided a very inaccurate date, had also claimed that the skull belonged to the earliest African man ever discovered outside Africa. He also tried to convince other professors and scientists that the skull did not originally belong to the cave, and some rainwater had washed it in from somewhere else. Accordingly, Breitinger advised all other scientists not to conduct any stratigraphic or palaeomagnetic research inside the cave to try date the skull. In other words, Breitinger discouraged any other researchers from trying to date the skull and called them to trust his own visual examination of it and his theory that it did not originally belong to the cave. As already mentioned, Breitinger simply did not say anything to other scientists about the skeleton which was originally found next to the skull.

After Poulianos returned to his post in Petralona in 1976, he soon realised that more fossilised finds had been taken during his absence.(FN) Many such finds still remain in Germany without explanation as to why the German scientists needed to keep them for so long, where exactly they are, and who is studying them.(FN) Contrary to Breitinger’s wishes, Poulianos invited new teams of specialists who did exactly what Breitinger did not wish to happen: they conducted further scientific research to understand how old Archanthropus really was, but without having the skull in their hands.(FN) The first stratigraphic results from the environs of the spot where the skull was discovered indicated that the skull was about 700,000 years old. This was very far away from the 50-70,000 thousand years given by Breitinger and his associates. One of them though, the German Professor O. Sickenberg changed his mind after 1971, when he examined the additional research results provided by Poulianos, and agreed with him that the skull was 600-700,000 years old.

Poulianos also studied the orthognathy of the skull and proved that it differed greatly from all other skulls discovered in Africa. A number of international scientists agreed with Poulianos and concluded that Archanthropus was the earliest distinguishable European. Breitinger was challenged in this aspect too, but he was not prepared to recognise results that proved him wrong. This conflict between the former SS officer and Poulianos, which began in the 1960s, continued in the 1970s and 1980s. An important detail here is that Breitinger was for a long time working together with his fellow SS officer Fleischhacker, Protsch’s mentor, and Protsch who succeeded Fleischhacker in his post was invited to date the Petralona skull. Breitinger, who supported Protsch getting his fake PhD from Vienna, also had his own network of Greek supporters from the time when he served in Greece during WWII.

Contrary to the research results accepted by Poulianos, Ikeya and other scientists, by 1981 three more German scientists from the Frankfurt Institute directed by Protsch, together with Protsch’s assistant Nikolaos Xirotiris conducted their own new research(FN) and concluded that the Archanthropus skull is about 160-240,000 years old.(FN) This result was based on a fake dating provided by Protsch himself, but back in the 1980s Protsch was celebrated as an honourable scientist and his datings were accepted as valid.

Xirotiris was related to the circle of the Greek academics who had invited Breitinger to come to Petralona, and he became Protsch’s own assistant for six years (1980-1986). This is exactly the period when Xirotiris and Protsch along with their German associates directed the publication of articles which went against Ikeya, Poulianos and a series of other scientists who disagreed with Breitinger. Xirotiris was in fact chosen by Breitinger’s entourage to become the courier who would take samples from the skull and deliver them to Protsch, and was rewarded with an appointment as Protsch’s personal scientific assistant. What has not received enough attention is that Protsch and Xirotiris had in essence continued Breitinger’s work against Poulianos in the sense that they too were claiming that the skull was much younger than Poulianos and other scientists had accepted.

Xirotiris had taken the first sample from the Archanthropus skull in 1979 and had personally given it for dating to Protsch.(FN) We should recall here that subsequent investigations made in 2004 and 2005 proved that Protsch was incapable of operating even the most basic scientific apparatus. For most of the years he was a director in the Frankfurt Institute of Anthropology, no dating provided by his institute can be trusted because it was he who personally dated almost every sample the institute was researching. Only for a period in between 1982 and 1985 was there another qualified scientist in the same Institute, capable of operating some equipment to provide datings independently from Protsch.(FN) Back in the years 1979-1982, the academic establishment which was not aware Protsch was a fraudster, supported the results published against Poulianos by Protsch and his teams. At the same period the German press was also directed to attack Poulianos and soon after the Greek press followed. Eventually, on the basis of fraudulent work, an entire academic establishment marginalised Poulianos and any other scientists who provided results that went against Protsch.(FN) A third group of scientists did not know whom to trust and were puzzled as to what exactly was going on and which dating was right.(FN)

By 1987 a new team had worked in Petralona and taken paleomagnetic measurements which indicated that the skull could not be more than 620,000 years old.(FN) Other scientists who conducted additional stratigraphic analysis provided evidence of extensive human presence and activity in the cave around 800-550,000 years ago, and it made sense to them that the Archanthropus lived some time during that period. Some others point to similarities between the Archanthropus skull and Cranium Sima 5 found in Spain, dated 400,000 years old.(FN) So far, there is no consensus as to which of the above datings is most accurate, but the question here is why a number of professors still accept the dating of the skull produced by Protsch, now exposed as a charlatan who repeatedly fabricated dates. It is important to understand that through the fabrication of the Archanthropus europeaus petraloniensis dates, Protsch and his circle inside the Frankfurt Institute have persuaded the world of science that Homo heidelbergensis(FN) and not the Archanthropus was the earlierst distinguishable European Homo. This is a central point in the German racial superiority theories, faithfully promoted by the SS scientists and their heirs. Thanks to the fraudulent work produced by Protsch, which dated Archanthropus europeaus petraloniensis as much younger than Homo heidelbergensis, some circles starting from Frankfurt celebrated that their own “German” skull and not the “Greek” one was earlier and “first in order.”(FN) This is the conclusion which prevailed in the world of science, despite some of the professors who worked together with Protsch and Xirotiris had been exposed by American professors as unreliable long before the scandal erupted in 2004.(FN)

Recently, the German press celebrated one more discovery of fossils which indicate that ‘The first upright ape was Bavarian.’ Interestingly, the “Bavarian” fossils were dated 11.62 million years old and supposedly predate the eleven million years old “Greek” fossils of Homo erectus trigliensis, discovered by Poulianos. Lets hope that this time the international scientific community will determine whether the “Bavarian” discovery is valid, or one more fabricated episode in the long lasting “scientific” propaganda which tries to persuade the world that the first and best humanoid and human models where “made in Germany.”

So far, the international community of science has paid little or no attention to the fact that Rainer Grün who is quoted by some scientists as having provided an accurate dating for the Petralona skull, in turn based his work on G. Hennig,(FN) but Hennig was working in the Frankfurt Institute under Protsch’s guidance and simply followed the dates given to him by Protsch.(FN) Important scientists published extensive research that proved the dates of G. Hennig as very wrong,(FN) but this research was again sidelined by the international academic establishment which still rejects Poulianos and keeps accepting Grün and Hennig, both of whom reproduced Protsch’s fake results.

Trying to understand what exactly was going on between the conflicting groups of scientists, a researcher should also note that back in 1979 Xirotiris had voted on behalf of Germany against nineteen other international anthropologists who supported Poulianos in organising a research conference in Petralona.(FN) At that time only one other scientist opposed Poulianos. A first question here is whether Xirotiris represented Germany just by himself or whether he had followed the wishes of his supervisor Protsch and/or other Germans who were influenced by Breitinger. Whatever the answer, the fact is that at least since 1979 Xirotiris enjoys the support of the German academic establishment, was personally employed and promoted by Protsch and was rewarded with prestigious posts in Greece as well. It is also important to understand that from a position of power Xirotiris did not hesitate to twist facts regarding Poulianos’ life by publishing that Poulianos enjoyed the support of the far-right dictatorship, while in fact this same dictatorship imprisoned Poulianos, fired him, stopped his work in Petralona, put him under strict surveillance and permitted the former SS officer Breitinger to work in Poulianos’ place. Xirotiris was also fully aware that Poulianos had studied biology in New York and had a PhD in anthropology from Moscow, but called Poulianos a mere agriculturist, thus trying to reduce his stature in the eyes of the public.(FN) More importantly, Xirotiris finally confessed to a mainstream German newspaper that his mentor Protsch was incompetent and had a criminal mind,(FN) but only after Protsch was exposed as a fraudster. However, Xirotiris did not provide an explanation as to why he continued serving Protsch as his personal assistant for such a long time. Others too who were working under Protsch’s instructions refused to publish anything against him, and some of them simply said that they would have ruined their own careers if they had dared to expose Protsch as a crook. Clearly, Protsch was acting under the protection of a powerful circle which dominated German and international anthropology studies.

Notwithstanding his illegal activities Protsch lives free and in luxury somewhere in the US, but as a result of the damage he caused to Poulianos’ reputation in 1979-82, Poulianos and some of his supporters were targeted as unreliable and soon after they were even physically attacked by thugs instructed to stop their research. As a result of the campaign instigated by Breitinger, Protsch and Xirotiris against him, by 1983 Poulianos had again lost his post and was banned from conducting any research in the cave. It is important for any researcher to note here that some very small fragments of the stolen Archanthropus skeleton were discovered by Poulianos next to where the skull was found, but these fragments too were stolen some time in between the years 1983 and 1997, together with other important finds. Since 1983, it took Poulianos fifteen years and about a hundred court cases to re-gain access to the cave in 1997, but without any funding. From then on he continued his scientific work by covering all expenses from his own pocket and spent his own family’s resources to build research and exhibition facilities in Petralona. In 2011, despite being advanced in age, he was again forbidden access to the cave and the facilities he had paid for. Interestingly, the judge who took the decision to expel Poulianos from Petralona is Panagiotis Pikrammenos. It should be noted here that in 1957 Pikrammenos was one of the very first students to enrol in the German School of Athens, which had remained closed since the end of the German occupation of Greece. He was sent to study in that particular school under the influence of his father, Otto Pikrammenos, a famous Nazi collaborator who circulated printed Nazi propaganda all over Greece during 1941-45 and enriched himself greatly during those years.(FN) He was never asked to return the fortune he had made by serving the Nazi propaganda machine, and sent his son Panagiotis to the German school out of his admiration for the Nazi regime which had turned him into a tycoon. It is also a fact that his son Panagiotis, soon after he took the German side against Poulianos, was appointed to serve as an interim prime minister of Greece in May and June 2012. This happened just two months after an assassination attempt against Aris Poulianos and his wife Dafni inside their home near Petralona. Poulianos was shot but he recovered after surgery.

As the circle which employed Protsch want to keep away from the cave any scientists they do not control, the Petralona cave remains locked despite the indications that it contains the earliest man-made masonry structure on earth, as well as hundreds of other important objects made by prehistoric people. Interestingly, on 2 July 2018 a team of Greek scientists who had accepted the Protsch results against Poulianos, were offered by the European Union almost a million euros(FN) to start their own projects inside the Petralona cave.(FN)

Despite all the setbacks, Poulianos must be enjoying the results of an increasing number of recent discoveries made by anthropologists and geneticists who repeatedly confirm his theory that some of the first Europeans lived in Greece and that modern Greeks are anthropologically and genetically related to the ancient, prehistoric and Palaeolithic people who lived in the same regions for many millennia.(FN) Long before such results became available, the British-American anthropologist John Lawrence Angel (1915-1986) had conducted the most extensive study of Neolithic skeletal material discovered in Greece.(FN) Later, he compared his finds with those of Poulianos and agreed with him that the modern Greeks are strikingly similar to the pre-historic inhabitants of the same region.

There is a long tradition of brainwashing the Germanic peoples to believe that they have a natural right to subdue and exploit others. Poulianos’ discoveries exposed the fabrications of an entire propaganda machine, and this provides an explanation as to why he was punished so severely.